Starting from Windows 10 Build 1703 you can’t anymore sync settings with a Microsoft account if the computer is joined to an AD domain.
“If your machine is domain joined, you will notice your “Sync my settings” option is disabled for your MSA account. Thanks for submitting feedback regarding this! We’ve removed support for syncing of settings for MSA accounts on domain joined machines”
I found a nice solution for that but you need a machine where the sync is working, so backup your reg for the future :-)
1- Export the key:
2- and import it to the new installed windows 10 CU machine.